Skip to main navigation menu Skip to main content Skip to site footer

Destruction Democracy Through Determinants of Vote Buying in General Elections in Indonesia


In analyzing the destruction of democracy, political culture, morals and political ethics through the determinants of Vote Buying in general elections in Indonesia, this article uses the literature study method. The method used is through data collection by finding sources and constructing from various sources such as books, journals, and existing research. The determinant of Vote Buying which destroys democracy, political culture, morals and political ethics. The intended determinants such as poverty, education, politico-business, patron-client relations should be sought for the root of the problem and its solution. Through analysis, Rational Choice Theory will dissect and examine the destruction of democracy, political culture, morals and political ethics through the determinants of Vote Buying in general elections in Indonesia. In conclusion, this article contains: (1). Nominal rules have not had a deterrent effect. (2). Low political awareness of people who are exposed to vote buying. (3). Educationally and economically marginalized people are politically neglected. (4). There is no anti-bribery formulation in the pilot scheme and sustainable maintenance practices (5). The bias of political party sovereignty as the main instrument in preventing politico-business intervention. (6). Unequal distribution of poverty and education. (7). There is a predatory network that is interrelated in maintaining the high political costs in Indonesia.


Democracy, Political Culture, Political Moral and Ethics, Vote Buying



  1. Adamu, A., Yakubu, U. (2022). The Dimensions of Poverty and its Effects on Nigerias National Development. Global Journal of Human-Social Science, 22(F2), 73–81.
  2. Adegbami, A., & Makinde, L. O. (2018). Democratic Governance and Voting Commercialisation: Implication for Nigeria’s Budding Democracy.
  3. Adlini, M. N., Dinda, A. H., Yulinda, S., Chotimah, O., & Merliyana, S. J. (2022). Metode Penelitian Kualitatif Studi Pustaka. Edumaspul: Jurnal Pendidikan, 6(1), 974–980.
  4. Aidt, T., Asatryan, Z., Badalyan, L., & Heinemann, F. (2020). Vote Buying or (Political) Business (Cycles) as Usual? The Review of Economics and Statistics, 102(3), 409–425.
  5. Alfa, P., & Fahmi, K. (2022). Journal of Social and Policy Issues Pemilu dan Korupsi: Fenomena Pelanggaran Etika dan Moral Penyelenggara Pemilu di Indonesia. Journal of Social and Policy Issues, 2(2).
  6. Amalia, L. S., Darmawan, D., Nuryanti, S., Nugroho, A. E., Romli, L., & Kartini, I. (2021). Dinamika Sosial Politik Pemilu Serentak 2019. LIPI Press.
  7. Ananta, D. D. (2017). Politik Oligarki dan Perampasan Tanah di Indonesia: Kasus Perampasan Tanah di Kabupaten Karawang Tahun 2014. Jurnal Politik, 2(1), 101.
  8. Aspinall, E., Rohman, N., Hamdi, A. Z., Rubaidi, & Triantini, Z. E. (2017). Vote buying in Indonesia: Candidate strategies, market logic and effectiveness. Journal of East Asian Studies, 17(1), 1–27.
  9. BKF. (2023). Tingkat Kemiskinan Berhasil Ditahan, Rasio Gini Menurun. Kemenkeu.Go.Id.
  10. Bawaslu. (2014). Laporan Hasil Pengawasan Pemilu Presiden dan Wakil Presiden Tahun 2014.
  11. Bawaslu RI. (2023). Buku IKP Pemilu dan Pemilihan Serentak 2024-2.
  12. Berenschot, W. (2018). The Political Economy of Clientelism: A Comparative Study of Indonesia’s Patronage Democracy. Comparative Political Studies, 51(12), 1563–1593.
  13. Brint, M. (2019). A Genealogy of Political Culture. Routledge.
  14. Busetto, L., Wick, W., & Gumbinger, C. (2020). How to use and assess qualitative research methods. In Neurological Research and Practice (Vol. 2, Issue 1). BioMed Central Ltd.
  15. Canare, T. A., Mendoza, R. U., & Lopez, M. A. (2018a). An empirical analysis of vote buying among the poor: Evidence from elections in the Philippines. South East Asia Research, 26(1), 58–84.
  16. Canare, T. A., Mendoza, R. U., & Lopez, M. A. (2018b). An empirical analysis of vote buying among the poor: Evidence from elections in the Philippines. South East Asia Research, 26(1), 58–84.
  17. Chalil, T. M. (2019). How much is your vote? Opportunistic business cycles of grant expenditures in Indonesia’s local elections.
  18. Dimas Jarot Bayu. (2021a, January 12). Politik Uang Masih Terjadi di Pilkada 2020. Katadata.
  19. Diokno-Sicat, J., & Maddawin, R. B. (2018). A Survey of Literature on Philippine Decentralization. Discussion Paper Series.
  20. Djuyandi, Y., Darmawan, W. B., & Jumroh. (2023). Democracy and local political participation in Sumedang, Indonesia. Journal of Public Affairs, 23(1).
  21. Ebenger, T., & McCabe, T. (2019). East Chicago Politics: A Cornucopia of Corruption. Midwest Social Sciences Journal, 22(1).
  22. Ejue, -, Ejue, K., Etika, -, & Nandi, D. (2018). Radio As A Veritable Tool For Sensitizing The Public On The Implications Of Vote Buying And Selling In Nigeria Elections. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications (IJSRP), 8(9).
  23. Ezequiel Gonzalez Ocantos, C. K. de J. and D. W. N. (2014). The Conditionality of Vote-Buying Norms: Experimental Evidence from Latin America. American Journal of Political Science, 58(1), 197–211.
  24. Fernandes, A., Mellaz, A., Riza, F., Siregar, F. E., Hurriyah, Sandi, I. D. K. W. R., Putra, I. W. W., Wulandari, L., Antariksa, N., Putrian, S. D., Ahmad, S. H., & Wahyu, Y. (2019). Serial Evaluasi Penyelenggaraan Pemilu Serentak 2019 Perihal Penyelenggaraan Kampanye (p. 403). Bawaslu. EBOOK.pdf
  25. Finan, F., & Schechter, L. A. (2011). Nber Working Paper Series Vote-Buying And Reciprocity Vote-Buying and Reciprocity.
  26. Guerra, A., & Justesen, M. K. (2022). Vote buying and redistribution. Public Choice, 193(3–4), 315–344.
  27. Halida, R., Susianto, H., Mujani, S., & Pratama, A. J. (2022). Vote-Selling as Unethical Behavior: Effects of Voter’s Inhibitory Self-Control, Decision Toward Vote-Buying Money, and Candidate’s Quality in Indonesia Election. Journal of Social and Political Psychology, 10(2), 570–587.
  28. Hamson, Z. (2021). Politik Uang di Pemilu Indonesia: Sebuah Tinjauan. Journal of Communication Sciences (JCoS), 4(1), 36–44.
  29. Hanusch, M., Bank, W., & Keefer, P. (2014). Political Budget Cycles and the Organization of Political Parties. Policy Research Working Paper Series 6654.
  30. Haridison, A. (2021). Framing Issues of Ex-Prisoners, Vote Buying, and Winning Teams: Evidence from Pilkada of the Palangka Raya City. Journal of Governance and Public Policy, 8(3), Progress.
  31. Hudik, M. (2019). Two interpretations of the rational choice theory and the relevance of behavioral critique. Rationality and Society, 31(4), 464–489.
  32. Husin, L. H., Pratama, H. M., Prasetyo, W., Hendra, H., Darmawan, W. B., Manan, F., & Amsari, F. (2021). Malpraktik Pemilu dan Korupsi: Analisis terhadap Proses Penghitungan dan Rekapitulasi pada Pemilu Indonesia 2019. INTEGRITAS, 7(1), 57–78.
  33. Indikator. (2023). Swing Voters, Efek Sosialisasi dan Tren Elektoral Jelang Pilpres 2024. Indikator.
  34. Israel, A. S., & John, M. D. (2020). Vote-buying Enterprise and Voting Behaviour among Electorate: Evidence from Southern Nigeria. Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, 15–24.
  35. Ivanivna, A. A. (2020). Democratic Principles of the Governance. Public Management, 4(24), 15–22.
  36. Jati, W. R. (2022). Comparative Analysis of Clientelistic Democracy in India and Indonesia: Outcomes and Challenges. Politik Indonesia: Indonesian Political Science Review, 7(1), 2503–4456.
  37. Jensen, P. S., & Justesen, M. K. (2014). Poverty and Vote Buying: Survey Based Evidence from Africa. Electoral Studies, 33, 220–232.
  38. Joseph, O., & Vashchanka, V. (2022). Vote Buying: International IDEA Electoral Processes Primer 2. In Vote Buying: International IDEA Electoral Processes Primer 2. International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (International IDEA).
  39. Justesen, M. K., & Manzetti, L. (2023). Poverty, Partisanship, and Vote Buying in Latin America. Latin American Politics and Society, 48(13).
  40. Komisi Yudisial. (2019). Bunga Rampai Memperkuat Peradaban Hukum Dan Ketatanegaraan Indonesia. Sekjen Komisi Yudisial RI.
  41. Kramon, E. J. (2013). Vote Buying and Accountability in Democratic Africa. UCLA. ProQuest ID.
  42. Kusman, A. P. (2018). The vortex of power: Intellectuals and politics in Indonesia’s post-authoritarian era. In The Vortex of Power: Intellectuals and Politics in Indonesia’s Post-Authoritarian Era. Springer Singapore.
  43. Maushagen, C., Neveling, M., Rothe, J., & Selker, A. K. (2022). Complexity of shift bribery for iterative voting rules. Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence, 90(10), 1017–1054.
  44. Muhtadi, B. (2019). The Prevalence of Vote Buying in Indonesia: Building an Index. In Vote Buying in Indonesia (pp. 45–79). Springer Singapore.
  45. Nielsen, H. K. (2018). Aesthetics and Political Culture in Modern Society. Routledge.
  46. Nwagwu, E. J., Uwaechia, O. G., Udegbunam, K. C., & Nnamani, R. (2022). Vote Buying During 2015 And 2019 General Elections: Manifestation and Implications on Democratic Development in Nigeria. In Cogent Social Sciences (Vol. 8, Issue 1). Cogent OA.
  47. Oladapo, S. O., Aderemi, ;, Oyewale, O., Hannah, ;, & Abayomi, O. (2020). Influence of Vote Buying Among Electorates; Its Implications to Nigeria Future Democracy. Higher Education of Social Science, 18(1), 73–78.
  48. Ostrom, E. (1998). A Behavioral Approach to the Rational Choice Theory of Collective Action: Presidential Address, American Political Science Association, 1997. American Political Science Review, 92(1), 1–22.
  49. Paalo, S. A., & van Gyampo, R. E. (2019). Campus Politics and Intra-Party Vote Buying in Ghana: How Political Mentorship Could Destruct. Journal of Student Affairs in Africa, 7(2).
  50. Pureklolon, T. (2021). Eksistensi Budaya Politik di Indonesia: Sebuah Kajian. In Jurnal Communitarian (Vol. 3, Issue 1).
  51. Patton, M. Q. (1999). Enhancing the Quality and Credibility of Qualitative Analysis. Health Services Research, 34(5 Pt 2), 1189–1208.
  52. Peterlevitz, T. (2022). Who Turns to Clientelism? Opportunistic Politicians, Patronage Appointments, and Vote Buying in Brazil. SSRN Electronic Journal, 22(May), 1–56.
  53. Pradhanawati, A., Tawakkal, G. T. I., & Garner, A. D. (2019 ). Voting Their Conscience: Poverty, Education, Social Pressure and Vote Buying in Indonesia. Journal of East Asian Studies, 19(1), 19–38.
  54. Putra, H. (2017). Determinants of Vote Buying in Local Head Election in Indonesia. Jurnal Bina Praja, 9(2), 205–218.
  55. Ranggong, A. M. A., Abidin, Z., & Uksan, A. (2023). Politik Uang dan Risiko Korupsi yang Mengancam Pertahanan Nirmiliter. Jurnal Education and Development, 11(2), 145–149.
  56. Renstrom, R. A., & Ottati, V. C. (2020). “I Feel Your Pain”: The Effect of Displaying Empathy on Political Candidate Evaluation. Journal of Social and Political Psychology, 8(2), 767–787.
  57. Robi Ardianto. (2020, December 2). Partisipasi Masyarakat Tinggi, Dari 262 Kasus Politik Uang 197 Laporan Masyarakat. Bawaslu RI.
  58. Sahab, A. (2012). Vote Buying dalam Pemilihan Kepala Daerah (Pilkada) Studi Kasus Pilkada Surabaya dan Pilkada Kabupaten Blitar Tahun 2010. Jejaring Administrasi Publik. Th II. Nomor (Vol. 8).
  59. Sahdan, G. (2019). Membongkar mafia dan oligarki dalam Pemilu 2019.
  60. Shchukin, V., & Arbatli, C. E. (2022). Clientelism and development: Vote-buying meets patronage. Journal of Theoretical Politics, 34(1), 3–34.
  61. Siregar, M. C., & Maryanah, T. (2022). Fenomena Money Politics dan Pembuktian Terstruktur Sistematis Masif (TSM) pada Pemilihan Walikota dan Wakil Walikota Bandar Lampung 2020. Jurnal Ilmu Pemerintahan Widya Praja, 48(2), 141–158.
  62. Solihah, R. (2022). Political Economic Transactions in Political Contest: Relationship Between Poverty and Money Politics in Indonesia. International Journal of Research in Community Service, 3(3), 99–105.
  63. Still, C., & Dusi, S. (2020). Vote buying and ‘Money-Politics’ in village elections in South India. Commonwealth and Comparative Politics, 58(1), 100–119.
  64. Sumantri, M. A., & Suryanto, S. (2020). Vote-buying as a moderator variable: The effect of political trust on college student participation in election. Masyarakat, Kebudayaan Dan Politik, 33(3), 321.
  65. Walker, A. (2014, April 13). Vote buying – commodity or gift? New Mandala.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...